Making sense of all of the numbers from your I.Q. and Achievement Testing: The Basics:

An Average IQ ranges from 85 to 115. Using this model; a standard deviation is 15 points. That would make 100 at the very center of this bell curve , 100 is exactly average. The 85 score is still considered to be normal but would represent the low side of normal. Concurrently the 115 on the bell curve represents the top end of what is considered to be within an “average I.Q. Score

Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC V)

A child’s full scale I.Q. is a measure of ones capabilities, their

Listed below are composite scores, and subtest information on the

A. Verbal Comprehension Index: (VCI)
The VCI measures verbal reasoning, understanding, concept formation, in addition to a child’s fund of knowledge and crystallized intelligence.  Crystallized intelligence is the knowledge a child has acquired over his or her lifespan through experiences and learning.  The core subtests which comprise the VCI require youth to define pictures or vocabulary words, and describe how words are conceptually related.  Children with expressive and/or receptive language deficits often exhibit poorer performance on the VCI.  Studies have also indicated that a child’s vocabulary knowledge is related to the development of reading abilities, and as such, weaker performance on tasks involving vocabulary may signal an academic area of difficulty.

  • Similarities: how are a wheel and a ball alike?
  • Vocabulary: word knowledge
  • Information: general fund of informational facts
  • Comprehension: the understanding of language, social judgment

B. Visual Spatial Index:
The VSI measures a child’s nonverbal reasoning and concept formation, visual perception and organization, visual-motor coordination, ability to analyze and synthesize abstract information, and distinguish figure-ground in visual stimuli.  Specifically, the core subtests of the VSI require that a child use mental rotation and visualization in order to build a geometric design to match a model with and without the presence of blocks.  Children with visual-spatial deficits may exhibit difficulty on tasks involving mathematics, building a model from an instruction sheet, or differentiating visual stimuli and figure ground on a computer screen
  • Block Design: non-verbal concept formation. Measures the ability to engage in novel problem solving and interpret patterns and sequences. The child is shown a replica of colored blocks to look at, and then the model is removed and the child must reconstruct the original pattern.
  • Visual Puzzles: Child views a completed puzzle and selects three response options that would combine to reconstruct the puzzle. Measures ability to analyze and synthesize abstract information. Item time limit of 30 seconds

C. The Fluid Reasoning index:
The fluid reasoning index measures a child’s ability to apply logic and reasoning to problem solving and novel situations. Fluid reasoning is related to math achievement, written expression, and to a lesser degree, reading skills. Fluid reasoning helps children with novel tasks when they need to recognize challenges and make inferences and assists them in detecting underlying conceptual relationships between visual objects. Fluid-reasoning skills include inductive and quantitative reasoning, visual intelligence, simultaneous processing, and abstract thinking and are also involved in understanding complex problem solving, realizing the implications of a behavior or action, and identifying patterns. Children with strength In fluid reasoning display the capacity to gather meaningful information from visual details and to apply that knowledge across a variety of settings. These children are able to identify and apply rules across novel situations and settings and show the capacity to generalize information from one situation to another. Children who struggle with fluid-reasoning skills have difficulty identifying important visual information or cannot connect what they see to abstract concepts or new situations. They may have problems in understanding the relationship among patterns and comprehending and applying conceptual quantitative concepts to make sense of a confusing situation. They may also display low general-reasoning abilities.

  • Matrix Reasoning: measures nonverbal abstract problem solving, inductive reasoning
  • Figure Weights: non-verbal quantitative reasoning ability
  • Picture Concepts: abstract and inductive reasoning, attention to detail

D. Working Memory Index:
The WMI evaluates a child’s ability to sustain auditory attention, concentrate, and exert mental control.  Children are asked to repeat numbers read aloud by the evaluator in a particular order, and have memory for pictures previously presented.  Deficits in working memory often suggest that children will require repetition when learning new information, as they exhibit difficulties taking information in short-term memory, manipulating it, and producing a response at a level comparable to their same age peers.  It is also not uncommon for youth with self-regulatory challenges, as observed in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to present with difficulties in working memory and processing speed.
  • Digit Span: short term auditory sequential recall
  • Picture Span: non-verbal memory for meaningful objects
  • Letter-Number Sequencing: auditory working memory

E. Processing Speed Index:
The PSI estimates how quickly and accurately a child is able to process information. Youth are asked to engage in tasks involving motor coordination, visual processing, and search skills under time constraints. Assuming processing speed difficulties are not related to delays in visual-motor functioning, weaker performance on the tasks which comprise the core subtests of the PSI indicate that a child will require additional time to process information and complete their work.  In the academic context, school-based accommodations may include allowing a child to take unfinished assignments home, focusing on the quality of work over quantity, shortening tasks, and allowing extended time.
Coding: Coding: Require a child to match symbols with numbers or shapes. This measures visual-motor speed (writing, copying), and short-term Visual Memory children under 8 mark rows of shapes with different lines according to a code, children over 8 transcribe a digit-symbol code. The task is time-limited
Symbol Search: Requires a child to visually scan information that is retained in memory. It also involves kinesthetic motor skills. This subtest also measures short-term Visual-Memory and motor skills
Together, a Full Scale Intelligent Quotient (FSIQ) is developed.  When large discrepancies are identified between the indices which comprise a child’s FSIQ, alternative scores can be calculated to best capture a child’s cognitive profile.  Alternative scores may be considered when deficits in language, attention, or motivation appear to have negatively impacted a child’s overall performance. Through the analysis of the general and specific domains of cognitive functioning, clinicians are better able to make informed decisions regarding diagnostic conceptualization and treatment recommendations.

For five categories of descriptors:

  • Scaled score from 1-4 is described as exceptional weakness, very poorly developed, or far below average with a corresponding percentile rank of 1-2.
  • Scaled score from 5-7 is described as weakness, poorly developed, or below average with a corresponding percentile rank of 5-16.
  • Scaled score from 8-12 is described as average with a corresponding percentile rank of 25-75.
  • Scaled score from 13-15 is described as strength, well developed, or above average with a corresponding percentile rank of 84-95.
  • Scaled score from 16-19 is described as exceptional strength, very well developed, or superior with a corresponding percentile rank of 98-99